According to research from the first half of the twentieth century, the understanding of clock- and calendar time is a prerequisite for the understanding of historical time and a full understanding of time only seems to emerge from the age of 11. This corresponds to the formal operational stage in the developmental theory of Piaget.
However, more recent research shows that children in Kindergarten can already distinguish changes over time based on visible physical factors such as, for example transport, clothing and architecture. These studies show that the development of the understanding of historical time of time is differs from the learning of clock and calendar time. It seems to be more a learning process next to a developmental process.
In England history education corresponds to these findings, since the teaching of history starts in year 1, at the age of 5, whereas the start of history lessons in the Netherlands is at the age of about 9.